Antworten darauf liefert ‚Hubble- Mission Universum' - und nimmt die Zuschauer mit auf eine faszinierende Entdeckungsreise mit spektakulären Bildern des. Und es gibt sie tatsächlich: Schwarze Löcher. Die Gruppe Event Horizon Telescope hat das erste Foto von einem Schwarzen Loch gemacht. Die ganze. Hubble - Mission Universum - Doku-Reihe im TV Programm - WELT, Vor einem halben Jahrhundert haben wir den ersten Schritt in diese.
Hubble - Mission UniversumHubble - Mission Universum (2/4). Die Geschichte unserer Existenz. Teilen. Film von Klaus Muth. Hubble. Quelle: NASA/dpa Das Weltraumteleskop Hubble. Hubble – Mission Universum: Seit 20 Jahren kreist Hubble auf Kilometern Höhe um die Erde. Bei einer Geschwindigkeit von acht Kilometern pro Sekunde. Antworten darauf liefert ‚Hubble- Mission Universum' - und nimmt die Zuschauer mit auf eine faszinierende Entdeckungsreise mit spektakulären Bildern des.
Hubble Mission Universum Hubble - Mission Universum soundtrack Video♫♫♫ 100+ Hubble Space Telescope Photos ♥ Ultra HD (4K) ♥ Relax Music ♥ 1 Hour ♥ Slideshow DVD-Tipp Lupin 3rd vs. Dieser Galaxienhaufen ist etwa vier Milliarden Lichtjahre von der Erde entfernt, es gibt darin die unterschiedlichsten Galaxien-Typen. Das Tv Today Heute 20.15 hat gezeigt, wie Sterne entstehen, ihr Leben leben und wie sie am Ende ihrer Lebenszeit sterben. April veröffentlicht wurde.
Gravity Falls Online gemachte Mnner wie James Katharina Lorenz ( Guardiani della Galassia) sprechen sich fr diesen Film aus ffentlich. - „Hubble“-Weltraumteleskop wird 30: Faszinierende Blicke ins UniversumLetzte Woche.Image inversion analysis of the HST OTA Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assemblyphase A Technical report. Retrieved April 25, Retrieved November 5, June 13, M; Broadhurst, T. More recently, it has started to brighten once more, and is now two to three times brighter than it Ombre Dunkelblond Blond at Gledalia dimmest point. Hubble was funded in the s with a proposed launch inbut the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. No complete Hubble mockup existed, so the astronauts studied Beetels separate models including one at the Smithsonian and mentally combined their varying and contradictory details. NASA found that Perkin-Elmer did not review or supervise the mirror construction adequately, did not assign its best optical scientists to the project as it had for the prototypeand in particular did not involve the optical designers in the construction Höllische Nachbarn verification Gravity Falls Online the mirror. Baltimore: Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved October 29, One of earliest of such an Galaxy S6 is the great white spot of  on planet Saturn, discovered by amateur astronomer S. Hubble - Mission Universum. 60 likes. TV Show. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centermanages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute conducts Hubble science operations. Screenshot of the German-language TV series Hubble: Mission thehandshakemagazine.com programme was produced by Servus TV. Read more on the announcement ann Credit. Since its launch, Hubble has changed our fundamental understanding of the universe. Die kompletten Folgen auf thehandshakemagazine.com Wie werden Sterne geboren, wie sterben sie? Was wissen Forscher heute über sie? Um ihre Geschi.American Physical Society. Hubble would then have most likely been displayed Kinox Arrival the Smithsonian Institution. April 21, This video, created by the Space Telescope Science Institute, shows the region of space Hubble observed. › View streaming video › Download video ( MB mp4) › Video transcript (pdf) The image was taken in the same region as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), which was taken in and is the deepest visible-light image of the universe. The Hubble Space Telescope (often referred to as HST or Hubble) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in and remains in operation. It was not the first space telescope, but it is one of the largest and most versatile, renowned both as a vital research tool and as a public relations boon for thehandshakemagazine.com Hubble telescope is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble Launch date: April 24, , UTC. Hubble Mission Universum Back to Portfolio. ServusTV: Hubble Mission Universum. Are we alone? About exoplanets and flying telescopes. Science Documentation. This episode looks with the renown exoplanet scientist Lisa Kaltenegger into the fundamental question: are we alone? There are many new ideas how to find out more about life on exoplanets. Hubble – Mission Universum: Seit 20 Jahren kreist Hubble auf Kilometern Höhe um die Erde. Bei einer Geschwindigkeit von acht Kilometern pro Sekunde. Hubble-Mission Universum (3/4). Die fantastischen Bilder der Weltraumteleskope. Teilen. Film von Klaus Muth. Gas- und Staubwolken des Carinanebels. Hubble - Mission Universum (2/4). Die Geschichte unserer Existenz. Teilen. Film von Klaus Muth. Hubble. Quelle: NASA/dpa Das Weltraumteleskop Hubble. Antworten darauf liefert ‚Hubble- Mission Universum' - und nimmt die Zuschauer mit auf eine faszinierende Entdeckungsreise mit spektakulären Bildern des.
Supernova A is the closest supernova to Earth to have been observed since the invention of the telescope, and is therefore an ideal laboratory for studying these phenomena.
A new study, published on 9 June in the journal Nature, sheds new light on one aspect of this supernova: for about fourteen years after the explosion was first seen, its afterglow gradually got dimmer as the radioactive elements produced by the supernova decayed.
More recently, it has started to brighten once more, and is now two to three times brighter than it was at its dimmest point.
The team, led by Josefin Larsson of the University of Stockholm, …. The star goes by the inauspicious name of Hubble variable number one, or V1, and resides in the outer regions of our neighbouring Andromeda Galaxy, or Messier In the early s, most astronomers considered the Milky Way to be a single island universe of stars, with nothing observable beyond its boundaries.
The Andromeda Galaxy was catalogued as just one of many faint, fuzzy patches of light that astronomers called spiral nebulae.
Were these spiral nebulae part of the Milky Way or were they independent island universes lying outside our galaxy? In this podcast episode, presenter Dr J aka Joe Liske looks at these projects, and how they will complement the capabilities of the next great thing in space-based astronomy, the James Webb Space Telescope.
More than a week after the burst was first spotted, high-energy radiation continues to brighten and fade.
Astronomers say they have never seen anything this bright, long lasting and variable before. Usually, gamma ray bursts mark the destruction of a massive star, but X-ray emission from these events never lasts more than a few hours.
Although research is ongoing, scientists say that the unusual blast likely arose when a star wandered too close to ….
NGC is a planetary nebula with unconventional good looks — quite bright, but small, with two distinct, but non-uniform regions: an elongated inner shell of gas and a fainter aspheric shell that surrounds it.
By comparison, the surface temperature of the Sun is about degrees Celsius. If you …. Each image is explained in a caption with additional information just a tap away.
In the slideshow mode the Top can be contemplated with background music from Zero Project, while each high resolution image makes full use of the bright iPad screen when used as wallpaper.
Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and so massive clusters should be rare in the early Universe. Although very distant clusters have been seen before, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation, and are not settled, mature systems like this one.
Two decades later, Hubble has helped solve that mystery — and in the process, asked new questions that have astronomers scratching their heads.
Hogg, Michael R. Blanton , Lockheed Martin, Google. Music: movetwo Directed by: Oli Usher Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen.
So far six episodes have been confirmed. In this episode, the Hubblecast talks to some leading astronomers about their favourite Hubble discovery.
Meanwhile, our presenter, Dr J, struggles to make up his mind. Its year-long history is captured in the 48 issues of the Newsletter. The ST-ECF closed its doors on 31 December heic In addition to covering the closure of ST-ECF, the final ST-ECF Newsletter features: An account and images of the third Science with the Hubble Space Telescope conference, which was held in Venice, Italy, in October Information about the future of the ST-ECF website, following the closure of the group.
The Newsletter is available for download in PDF format from the …. Previous Next. The U. Congress questioned many aspects of the proposed budget for the telescope and forced cuts in the budget for the planning stages, which at the time consisted of very detailed studies of potential instruments and hardware for the telescope.
In , public spending cuts led to Congress deleting all funding for the telescope project. In response a nationwide lobbying effort was coordinated among astronomers.
Many astronomers met congressmen and senators in person, and large scale letter-writing campaigns were organized.
The National Academy of Sciences published a report emphasizing the need for a space telescope, and eventually the Senate agreed to half the budget that had originally been approved by Congress.
A proposed precursor 1. Once the Space Telescope project had been given the go-ahead, work on the program was divided among many institutions.
Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the telescope, while Goddard Space Flight Center was given overall control of the scientific instruments and ground-control center for the mission.
Lockheed was commissioned to construct and integrate the spacecraft in which the telescope would be housed. This design, with two hyperbolic mirrors, is known for good imaging performance over a wide field of view, with the disadvantage that the mirrors have shapes that are hard to fabricate and test.
The mirror and optical systems of the telescope determine the final performance, and they were designed to exacting specifications. Optical telescopes typically have mirrors polished to an accuracy of about a tenth of the wavelength of visible light , but the Space Telescope was to be used for observations from the visible through the ultraviolet shorter wavelengths and was specified to be diffraction limited to take full advantage of the space environment.
This limits Hubble's performance as an infrared telescope. Perkin-Elmer intended to use custom-built and extremely sophisticated computer-controlled polishing machines to grind the mirror to the required shape.
Their bid called for the two companies to double-check each other's work, which would have almost certainly caught the polishing error that later caused such problems.
Construction of the Perkin-Elmer mirror began in , starting with a blank manufactured by Corning from their ultra-low expansion glass. Perkin-Elmer simulated microgravity by supporting the mirror from the back with rods that exerted varying amounts of force.
Mirror polishing continued until May NASA reports at the time questioned Perkin-Elmer's managerial structure, and the polishing began to slip behind schedule and over budget.
To save money, NASA halted work on the back-up mirror and put the launch date of the telescope back to October Doubts continued to be expressed about Perkin-Elmer's competence on a project of this importance, as their budget and timescale for producing the rest of the OTA continued to inflate.
In response to a schedule described as "unsettled and changing daily", NASA postponed the launch date of the telescope until April Perkin-Elmer's schedules continued to slip at a rate of about one month per quarter, and at times delays reached one day for each day of work.
NASA was forced to postpone the launch date until March and then September The spacecraft in which the telescope and instruments were to be housed was another major engineering challenge.
It would have to withstand frequent passages from direct sunlight into the darkness of Earth's shadow , which would cause major changes in temperature, while being stable enough to allow extremely accurate pointing of the telescope.
A shroud of multi-layer insulation keeps the temperature within the telescope stable and surrounds a light aluminum shell in which the telescope and instruments sit.
Within the shell, a graphite-epoxy frame keeps the working parts of the telescope firmly aligned. To reduce that risk, a nitrogen gas purge was performed before launching the telescope into space.
An MSFC report said Lockheed tended to rely on NASA directions rather than take their own initiative in the construction.
The two initial, primary computers on the HST were the 1. It increases throughput by moving some computing tasks from the ground to the spacecraft and saves money by allowing the use of modern programming languages.
Additionally, some of the science instruments and components had their own embedded microprocessor-based control systems.
The MATs Multiple Access Transponder components, MAT-1 and MAT-2, utilize Hughes Aircraft CDPCD microprocessors. It was built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory , and incorporated a set of 48 filters isolating spectral lines of particular astrophysical interest.
The instrument contained eight charge-coupled device CCD chips divided between two cameras, each using four CCDs. Each CCD has a resolution of 0.
The GHRS was a spectrograph designed to operate in the ultraviolet. It was built by the Goddard Space Flight Center and could achieve a spectral resolution of 90, Rather than CCDs these three instruments used photon -counting digicons as their detectors.
The FOC was constructed by ESA, while the University of California, San Diego , and Martin Marietta Corporation built the FOS.
The final instrument was the HSP, designed and built at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. It was optimized for visible and ultraviolet light observations of variable stars and other astronomical objects varying in brightness.
HST's guidance system can also be used as a scientific instrument. Its three Fine Guidance Sensors FGS are primarily used to keep the telescope accurately pointed during an observation, but can also be used to carry out extremely accurate astrometry ; measurements accurate to within 0.
The Space Telescope Science Institute STScI is responsible for the scientific operation of the telescope and the delivery of data products to astronomers.
STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy AURA and is physically located in Baltimore , Maryland on the Homewood campus of Johns Hopkins University , one of the 39 U.
STScI was established in   after something of a power struggle between NASA and the scientific community at large.
NASA had wanted to keep this function in-house, but scientists wanted it to be based in an academic establishment. One rather complex task that falls to STScI is scheduling observations for the telescope.
Observations cannot take place when the telescope passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly due to elevated radiation levels, and there are also sizable exclusion zones around the Sun precluding observations of Mercury , Moon and Earth.
Earth and Moon avoidance keeps bright light out of the FGSs, and keeps scattered light from entering the instruments.
If the FGSs are turned off, the Moon and Earth can be observed. Earth observations were used very early in the program to generate flat-fields for the WFPC1 instrument.
Due to the precession of the orbit, the location of the CVZ moves slowly over a period of eight weeks. Observation schedules are typically finalized only a few days in advance, as a longer lead time would mean there was a chance the target would be unobservable by the time it was due to be observed.
By January , the planned launch date of October looked feasible, but the Challenger explosion brought the U.
The telescope had to be kept in a clean room, powered up and purged with nitrogen, until a launch could be rescheduled. This delay did allow time for engineers to perform extensive tests, swap out a possibly failure-prone battery, and make other improvements.
Eventually, following the resumption of shuttle flights in , the launch of the telescope was scheduled for On April 24, , Space Shuttle Discovery successfully launched it during the STS mission.
Hubble accommodates five science instruments at a given time, plus the Fine Guidance Sensors , which are mainly used for aiming the telescope but are occasionally used for scientific astrometry measurements.
Early instruments were replaced with more advanced ones during the Shuttle servicing missions. COSTAR was a corrective optics device rather than a science instrument, but occupied one of the five instrument bays.
Since the final servicing mission in , the four active instruments have been ACS, COS, STIS and WFC3. NICMOS is kept in hibernation, but may be revived if WFC3 were to fail in the future.
Of the former instruments, three COSTAR, FOS and WFPC2 are displayed in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. The FOC is in the Dornier museum, Germany.
The HSP is in the Space Place at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. The first WFPC was dismantled, and some components were then re-used in WFC3.
Within weeks of the launch of the telescope, the returned images indicated a serious problem with the optical system. Although the first images appeared to be sharper than those of ground-based telescopes, Hubble failed to achieve a final sharp focus and the best image quality obtained was drastically lower than expected.
Images of point sources spread out over a radius of more than one arcsecond, instead of having a point spread function PSF concentrated within a circle 0.
Analysis of the flawed images revealed that the primary mirror had been polished to the wrong shape. The effect of the mirror flaw on scientific observations depended on the particular observation—the core of the aberrated PSF was sharp enough to permit high-resolution observations of bright objects, and spectroscopy of point sources was affected only through a sensitivity loss.
However, the loss of light to the large, out-of-focus halo severely reduced the usefulness of the telescope for faint objects or high-contrast imaging.
This meant nearly all the cosmological programs were essentially impossible, since they required observation of exceptionally faint objects.
A commission headed by Lew Allen , director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory , was established to determine how the error could have arisen.
The Allen Commission found that a reflective null corrector , a testing device used to achieve a properly shaped non-spherical mirror, had been incorrectly assembled—one lens was out of position by 1.
However, for the final manufacturing step figuring , they switched to the custom-built reflective null corrector, designed explicitly to meet very strict tolerances.
The incorrect assembly of this device resulted in the mirror being ground very precisely but to the wrong shape.
A few final tests, using the conventional null correctors, correctly reported spherical aberration. But these results were dismissed, thus missing the opportunity to catch the error, because the reflective null corrector was considered more accurate.
The commission blamed the failings primarily on Perkin-Elmer. Relations between NASA and the optics company had been severely strained during the telescope construction, due to frequent schedule slippage and cost overruns.
NASA found that Perkin-Elmer did not review or supervise the mirror construction adequately, did not assign its best optical scientists to the project as it had for the prototype , and in particular did not involve the optical designers in the construction and verification of the mirror.
While the commission heavily criticized Perkin-Elmer for these managerial failings, NASA was also criticized for not picking up on the quality control shortcomings, such as relying totally on test results from a single instrument.
Many feared that Hubble would be abandoned. While Kodak had ground a back-up mirror for Hubble, it would have been impossible to replace the mirror in orbit, and too expensive and time-consuming to bring the telescope back to Earth for a refit.
Instead, the fact that the mirror had been ground so precisely to the wrong shape led to the design of new optical components with exactly the same error but in the opposite sense, to be added to the telescope at the servicing mission, effectively acting as " spectacles " to correct the spherical aberration.
The first step was a precise characterization of the error in the main mirror. Because of the way the HST's instruments were designed, two different sets of correctors were required.
An inverse error built into their surfaces could completely cancel the aberration of the primary. However, the other instruments lacked any intermediate surfaces that could be figured in this way, and so required an external correction device.
The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement COSTAR system was designed to correct the spherical aberration for light focused at the FOC, FOS, and GHRS.
It consists of two mirrors in the light path with one ground to correct the aberration. The area previously used by COSTAR is now occupied by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.
Hubble was designed to accommodate regular servicing and equipment upgrades while in orbit. Instruments and limited life items were designed as orbital replacement units.
The necessary work was then carried out in multiple tethered spacewalks over a period of four to five days. After a visual inspection of the telescope, astronauts conducted repairs, replaced failed or degraded components, upgraded equipment, and installed new instruments.
Once work was completed, the telescope was redeployed, typically after boosting to a higher orbit to address the orbital decay caused by atmospheric drag.
The first Hubble serving mission was scheduled for before the mirror problem was discovered. It assumed greater importance, as the astronauts would need to do extensive work to install corrective optics; failure would have resulted in either abandoning Hubble or accepting its permanent disability.
A successful repair would help demonstrate the viability of building Space Station Alpha , however. STS in demonstrated the difficulty of space work.
While its rescue of Intelsat received praise, the astronauts had taken possibly reckless risks in doing so. Neither the rescue nor the unrelated assembly of prototype space station components occurred as the astronauts had trained, causing NASA to reassess planning and training, including for the Hubble repair.
The agency assigned to the mission Story Musgrave —who had worked on satellite repair procedures since —and six other experienced astronauts, including two from STS The first mission director since Project Apollo would coordinate a crew with 16 previous shuttle flights.
The astronauts were trained to use about a hundred specialized tools. Heat had been the problem on prior spacewalks, which occurred in sunlight.
Hubble needed to be repaired out of sunlight. Musgrave discovered during vacuum training, seven months before the mission, that spacesuit gloves did not sufficiently protect against the cold of space.
After STS confirmed the issue in orbit, NASA quickly changed equipment, procedures, and flight plan. Seven total mission simulations occurred before launch, the most thorough preparation in shuttle history.
No complete Hubble mockup existed, so the astronauts studied many separate models including one at the Smithsonian and mentally combined their varying and contradictory details.
Most importantly, the High Speed Photometer was replaced with the COSTAR corrective optics package, and WFPC was replaced with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 WFPC2 with an internal optical correction system.
The solar arrays and their drive electronics were also replaced, as well as four gyroscopes in the telescope pointing system, two electrical control units and other electrical components, and two magnetometers.
The onboard computers were upgraded with added coprocessors , and Hubble's orbit was boosted. On January 13, , NASA declared the mission a complete success and showed the first sharper images.
Its success was a boon for NASA, as well as for the astronomers who now had a more capable space telescope. Servicing Mission 2, flown by Discovery in February , replaced the GHRS and the FOS with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph STIS and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer NICMOS , replaced an Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with a new Solid State Recorder, and repaired thermal insulation.
This led to an increased warming rate for the instrument and reduced its original expected lifetime of 4.
The fourth failed a few weeks before the mission, rendering the telescope incapable of performing scientific observations.
Servicing Mission 3B flown by Columbia in March saw the installation of a new instrument, with the FOC which, except for the Fine Guidance Sensors when used for astrometry, was the last of the original instruments being replaced by the Advanced Camera for Surveys ACS.
This meant COSTAR was no longer required, since all new instruments had built-in correction for the main mirror aberration.
Plans called for Hubble to be serviced in February , but the Columbia disaster in , in which the orbiter disintegrated on re-entry into the atmosphere, had wide-ranging effects on the Hubble program.
NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe decided all future shuttle missions had to be able to reach the safe haven of the International Space Station should in-flight problems develop.
As no shuttles were capable of reaching both HST and the space station during the same mission, future crewed service missions were canceled.
A gap in space-observing capabilities between a decommissioning of Hubble and the commissioning of a successor was of major concern to many astronomers, given the significant scientific impact of HST.
On the other hand, many astronomers felt strongly that servicing Hubble should not take place if the expense were to come from the JWST budget.
In January , O'Keefe said he would review his decision to cancel the final servicing mission to HST, due to public outcry and requests from Congress for NASA to look for a way to save it.
The National Academy of Sciences convened an official panel, which recommended in July that the HST should be preserved despite the apparent risks.
Their report urged "NASA should take no actions that would preclude a space shuttle servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope".
These plans were later canceled, the robotic mission being described as "not feasible". The nomination in April of a new NASA Administrator, Michael D.
Griffin , changed the situation, as Griffin stated he would consider a crewed servicing mission. In October Griffin gave the final go-ahead, and the day mission by Atlantis was scheduled for October Hubble's main data-handling unit failed in September ,  halting all reporting of scientific data until its back-up was brought online on October 25, Servicing Mission 4 SM4 , flown by Atlantis in May , was the last scheduled shuttle mission for HST.
SM4 also installed two new observation instruments— Wide Field Camera 3 WFC3 and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph COS  —and the Soft Capture and Rendezvous System , which will enable the future rendezvous, capture, and safe disposal of Hubble by either a crewed or robotic mission.
Since the start of the program, a number of research projects have been carried out, some of them almost solely with Hubble, others coordinated facilities such as Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESO 's Very Large Telescope.
Although the Hubble observatory is nearing the end of its life, there are still major projects scheduled for it. One example is the upcoming Frontier Fields program,  inspired by the results of Hubble's deep observation of the galaxy cluster Abell In an August press release, CANDELS was referred to as "the largest project in the history of Hubble".
The survey "aims to explore galactic evolution in the early Universe, and the very first seeds of cosmic structure at less than one billion years after the Big Bang.
Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected; each has multi-wavelength data from Spitzer and other facilities, and has extensive spectroscopy of the brighter galaxies.
The program, officially named "Hubble Deep Fields Initiative ", is aimed to advance the knowledge of early galaxy formation by studying high-redshift galaxies in blank fields with the help of gravitational lensing to see the "faintest galaxies in the distant universe".
The Cosmic Evolution Survey COSMOS  is an astronomical survey designed to probe the formation and evolution of galaxies as a function of both cosmic time redshift and the local galaxy environment.
The survey covers a two square degree equatorial field with spectroscopy and X-ray to radio imaging by most of the major space-based telescopes and a number of large ground based telescopes,  making it a key focus region of extragalactic astrophysics.
COSMOS was launched in as the largest project pursued by the Hubble Space Telescope at the time, and still is the largest continuous area of sky covered for the purposes of mapping deep space in blank fields , 2.
The COSMOS scientific collaboration that was forged from the initial COSMOS survey is the largest and longest-running extragalactic collaboration, known for its collegiality and openness.
The study of galaxies in their environment can be done only with large areas of the sky, larger than a half square degree.
The COSMOS collaboration is led by Caitlin Casey , Jeyhan Kartaltepe , and Vernesa Smolcic and involves more than scientists in a dozen countries.
Anyone can apply for time on the telescope; there are no restrictions on nationality or academic affiliation, but funding for analysis is available only to U.
Calls for proposals are issued roughly annually, with time allocated for a cycle lasting about one year. Proposals are divided into several categories; "general observer" proposals are the most common, covering routine observations.
Snapshot observations are used to fill in gaps in the telescope schedule that cannot be filled by regular general observer programs.
Astronomers may make "Target of Opportunity" proposals, in which observations are scheduled if a transient event covered by the proposal occurs during the scheduling cycle.
Astronomers can apply to use DD time at any time of year, and it is typically awarded for study of unexpected transient phenomena such as supernovae.
Other uses of DD time have included the observations that led to views of the Hubble Deep Field and Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and in the first four cycles of telescope time, observations that were carried out by amateur astronomers.
Public image processing of Hubble data is encouraged as most of the data in the archives has not been processed into color imagery.
The first director of STScI, Riccardo Giacconi , announced in that he intended to devote some of his director discretionary time to allowing amateur astronomers to use the telescope.
The total time to be allocated was only a few hours per cycle but excited great interest among amateur astronomers. Proposals for amateur time were stringently reviewed by a committee of amateur astronomers, and time was awarded only to proposals that were deemed to have genuine scientific merit, did not duplicate proposals made by professionals, and required the unique capabilities of the space telescope.
Thirteen amateur astronomers were awarded time on the telescope, with observations being carried out between and The first proposal, "A Hubble Space Telescope Study of Posteclipse Brightening and Albedo Changes on Io", was published in Icarus ,  a journal devoted to solar system studies.
A second study from another group of amateurs was also published in Icarus. Regular Hubble proposals still include findings or discovered objects by amateurs or citizen scientists.
These observations are often in a collaboration with professional astronomers. One of earliest of such an observation is the great white spot of  on planet Saturn, discovered by amateur astronomer S.
Wilber  and observed by HST under a proposal by J. Westphal caltech. The non-detection by the HST helped to classify this peculiar object.
In the early s, NASA and STScI convened four panels to discuss key projects. These were projects that were both scientifically important and would require significant telescope time, which would be explicitly dedicated to each project.
This guaranteed that these particular projects would be completed early, in case the telescope failed sooner than expected.
The panels identified three such projects: 1 a study of the nearby intergalactic medium using quasar absorption lines to determine the properties of the intergalactic medium and the gaseous content of galaxies and groups of galaxies;  2 a medium deep survey using the Wide Field Camera to take data whenever one of the other instruments was being used  and 3 a project to determine the Hubble constant within ten percent by reducing the errors, both external and internal, in the calibration of the distance scale.
Hubble has helped resolve some long-standing problems in astronomy, while also raising new questions. Some results have required new theories to explain them.
Among its primary mission targets was to measure distances to Cepheid variable stars more accurately than ever before, and thus constrain the value of the Hubble constant , the measure of the rate at which the universe is expanding, which is also related to its age.
While Hubble helped to refine estimates of the age of the universe, it also cast doubt on theories about its future.
Astronomers from the High-z Supernova Search Team and the Supernova Cosmology Project used ground-based telescopes and HST to observe distant supernovae and uncovered evidence that, far from decelerating under the influence of gravity , the expansion of the universe may in fact be accelerating.
Three members of these two groups have subsequently been awarded Nobel Prizes for their discovery. The high-resolution spectra and images provided by the HST have been especially well-suited to establishing the prevalence of black holes in the center of nearby galaxies.
While it had been hypothesized in the early s that black holes would be found at the centers of some galaxies, and astronomers in the s identified a number of good black hole candidates, work conducted with Hubble shows that black holes are probably common to the centers of all galaxies.
The legacy of the Hubble programs on black holes in galaxies is thus to demonstrate a deep connection between galaxies and their central black holes.
A unique window on the Universe enabled by Hubble are the Hubble Deep Field , Hubble Ultra-Deep Field , and Hubble Extreme Deep Field images, which used Hubble's unmatched sensitivity at visible wavelengths to create images of small patches of sky that are the deepest ever obtained at optical wavelengths.
The images reveal galaxies billions of light years away, and have generated a wealth of scientific papers, providing a new window on the early Universe.
The non-standard object SCP 06F6 was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in February On March 3, , researchers using Hubble data announced the discovery of the farthest known galaxy to date: GN-z HST has also been used to study objects in the outer reaches of the Solar System, including the dwarf planets Pluto  and Eris.
Hubble images of the planet were sharper than any taken since the passage of Voyager 2 in , and were crucial in studying the dynamics of the collision of a comet with Jupiter, an event believed to occur once every few centuries.
During June and July , U. In March , researchers announced that measurements of aurorae around Ganymede , one of Jupiter's moons, revealed that it has a subsurface ocean.
Using Hubble to study the motion of its aurorae, the researchers determined that a large saltwater ocean was helping to suppress the interaction between Jupiter's magnetic field and that of Ganymede.
From June to August , Hubble was used to search for a Kuiper belt object KBO target for the New Horizons Kuiper Belt Extended Mission KEM when similar searches with ground telescopes failed to find a suitable target.
In August , taking advantage of a total lunar eclipse, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have detected Earth's own brand of sunscreen — ozone — in our atmosphere.
This method simulates how astronomers and astrobiology researchers will search for evidence of life beyond Earth by observing potential "biosignatures" on exoplanets planets around other stars.
On December 11, , Hubble captured an image of the first-ever predicted reappearance of a supernova, dubbed " Refsdal ", which was calculated using different mass models of a galaxy cluster whose gravity is warping the supernova's light.
The supernova was previously seen in November behind galaxy cluster MACS J Astronomers spotted four separate images of the supernova in an arrangement known as an Einstein Cross.
Based on early lens models, a fifth image was predicted to reappear by the end of In March , observations from Hubble and data from the European Space Agency's Gaia space observatory were combined to determine that the Milky Way Galaxy weighs approximately 1.
Other discoveries made with Hubble data include proto-planetary disks proplyds in the Orion Nebula ;  evidence for the presence of extrasolar planets around Sun-like stars;  and the optical counterparts of the still-mysterious gamma-ray bursts.
The peculiarity of this galaxy bolts down to its spiral, swirly appearance gracing the dark space. Many objective measures show the positive impact of Hubble data on astronomy.
Over 15, papers based on Hubble data have been published in peer-reviewed journals,  and countless more have appeared in conference proceedings.
Looking at papers several years after their publication, about one-third of all astronomy papers have no citations , while only two percent of papers based on Hubble data have no citations.
On average, a paper based on Hubble data receives about twice as many citations as papers based on non-Hubble data. Although the HST has clearly helped astronomical research, its financial cost has been large.
Deciding between building ground- versus space-based telescopes is complex. Even before Hubble was launched, specialized ground-based techniques such as aperture masking interferometry had obtained higher-resolution optical and infrared images than Hubble would achieve, though restricted to targets about 10 8 times brighter than the faintest targets observed by Hubble.
The usefulness of adaptive optics versus HST observations depends strongly on the particular details of the research questions being asked.
In the visible bands, adaptive optics can correct only a relatively small field of view, whereas HST can conduct high-resolution optical imaging over a wide field.
Only a small fraction of astronomical objects are accessible to high-resolution ground-based imaging; in contrast Hubble can perform high-resolution observations of any part of the night sky, and on objects that are extremely faint.
In addition to its scientific results, Hubble has also made significant contributions to aerospace engineering , in particular the performance of systems in low Earth orbit.
These insights result from Hubble's long lifetime on orbit, extensive instrumentation, and return of assemblies to the Earth where they can be studied in detail.
In particular, Hubble has contributed to studies of the behavior of graphite composite structures in vacuum, optical contamination from residual gas and human servicing, radiation damage to electronics and sensors, and the long term behavior of multi-layer insulation.
Gyroscopes are now assembled using pressurized nitrogen. Hubble data was initially stored on the spacecraft. About twice daily, the Hubble Space Telescope radios data to a satellite in the geosynchronous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System TDRSS , which then downlinks the science data to one of two foot meter diameter high-gain microwave antennas located at the White Sands Test Facility in White Sands, New Mexico.
All images from Hubble are monochromatic grayscale , taken through a variety of filters, each passing specific wavelengths of light, and incorporated in each camera.
Color images are created by combining separate monochrome images taken through different filters. This process can also create false-color versions of images including infrared and ultraviolet channels, where infrared is typically rendered as a deep red and ultraviolet is rendered as a deep blue.
The PI can apply to the director of the STScI to extend or reduce the proprietary period in some circumstances.
Observations made on Director's Discretionary Time are exempt from the proprietary period, and are released to the public immediately.
Calibration data such as flat fields and dark frames are also publicly available straight away. All data in the archive is in the FITS format, which is suitable for astronomical analysis but not for public use.
Astronomical data taken with CCDs must undergo several calibration steps before they are suitable for astronomical analysis.
STScI has developed sophisticated software that automatically calibrates data when they are requested from the archive using the best calibration files available.
This 'on-the-fly' processing means large data requests can take a day or more to be processed and returned. The process by which data is calibrated automatically is known as 'pipeline reduction', and is increasingly common at major observatories.
Astronomers may if they wish retrieve the calibration files themselves and run the pipeline reduction software locally.
This may be desirable when calibration files other than those selected automatically need to be used. Hubble data can be analyzed using many different packages.
STScI maintains the custom-made Space Telescope Science Data Analysis System STSDAS software, which contains all the programs needed to run pipeline reduction on raw data files, as well as many other astronomical image processing tools, tailored to the requirements of Hubble data.
The software runs as a module of IRAF , a popular astronomical data reduction program. It has always been important for the Space Telescope to capture the public's imagination, given the considerable contribution of taxpayers to its construction and operational costs.
Several initiatives have helped to keep the public informed about Hubble activities. In the United States, outreach efforts are coordinated by the Space Telescope Science Institute STScI Office for Public Outreach, which was established in to ensure that U.
To that end, STScI operates the HubbleSite. The Hubble Heritage Project , operating out of the STScI, provides the public with high-quality images of the most interesting and striking objects observed.
The Heritage team is composed of amateur and professional astronomers, as well as people with backgrounds outside astronomy, and emphasizes the aesthetic nature of Hubble images.
The Heritage Project is granted a small amount of time to observe objects which, for scientific reasons, may not have images taken at enough wavelengths to construct a full-color image.
Since , the leading Hubble outreach group in Europe has been the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre HEIC.
HEIC's mission is to fulfill HST outreach and education tasks for the European Space Agency. The work is centered on the production of news and photo releases that highlight interesting Hubble results and images.
ESA produces educational material, including a videocast series called Hubblecast designed to share world-class scientific news with the public.
The Hubble Space Telescope has won two Space Achievement Awards from the Space Foundation , for its outreach activities, in and A replica of the Hubble Space Telescope is on the courthouse lawn in Marshfield, Missouri , the hometown of namesake Edwin P.
The Hubble Space Telescope celebrated its 20th anniversary in space on April 24, To commemorate the occasion, NASA, ESA, and the Space Telescope Science Institute STScI released an image from the Carina Nebula.
HST uses gyroscopes to detect and measure any rotations so it can stabilize itself in orbit and point accurately and steadily at astronomical targets.
Three gyroscopes are normally required for operation; observations are still possible with two or one, but the area of sky that can be viewed would be somewhat restricted, and observations requiring very accurate pointing are more difficult.
The gyroscopes are part of the Pointing Control System , which uses five types of sensors magnetic sensors, optical sensors, and the gyroscopes and two types of actuators reaction wheels and magnetic torquers.
After the Columbia disaster in , it was unclear whether another servicing mission would be possible, and gyroscope life became a concern again, so engineers developed new software for two-gyroscope and one-gyroscope modes to maximize the potential lifetime.
The development was successful, and in , it was decided to switch to two-gyroscope mode for regular telescope operations as a means of extending the lifetime of the mission.
The switch to this mode was made in August , leaving Hubble with two gyroscopes in use, two on backup, and two inoperable. By the time of the final repair mission in May , during which all six gyroscopes were replaced with two new pairs and one refurbished pair , only three were still working.
Engineers determined that the gyroscope failures were caused by corrosion of electric wires powering the motor that was initiated by oxygen-pressurized air used to deliver the thick suspending fluid.
Of the six gyroscopes replaced in , three were of the old design susceptible for flex-lead failure, and three were of the new design with a longer expected lifetime.
The first of the old-style gyroscopes failed in March , and the second in April On October 5, , the last of the old-style gyroscopes failed, and one of the new-style gyroscopes was powered-up from standby state.
However, that reserve gyroscope did not immediately perform within operational limits, and so the observatory was placed into "safe" mode while scientists attempted to fix the problem.
Additional tests [are] to be performed to ensure Hubble can return to science operations with this gyro. The solution that restored the backup new-style gyroscope to operational range was widely reported as "turning it off and on again".
The failure was attributed to an inconsistency in the fluid surrounding the float within the gyroscope e. On October 18, , the Hubble Operations Team directed the spacecraft into a series of maneuvers—moving the spacecraft in opposite directions—in order to mitigate the inconsistency.
Only after the maneuvers, and a subsequent set of maneuvers on October 19, did the gyroscope truly operate within its normal range.
Past servicing missions have exchanged old instruments for new ones, avoiding failure and making new types of science possible. Without servicing missions, all the instruments will eventually fail.
In August , the power system of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph STIS failed, rendering the instrument inoperable.
The electronics had originally been fully redundant, but the first set of electronics failed in May Similarly, the Advanced Camera for Surveys ACS main camera primary electronics failed in June , and the power supply for the backup electronics failed on January 27, A new power supply for the wide angle channel was added during SM 4, but quick tests revealed this did not help the high resolution channel.
On January 8, , Hubble entered a partial safe mode following suspected hardware problems in its most advanced instrument, the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument.
NASA later reported that the cause of the safe mode within the instrument was a detection of voltage levels out of a defined range.
On January 15, , NASA said the cause of the failure was a software problem. Engineering data within the telemetry circuits were not accurate.
In addition, all other telemetry within those circuits also contained erroneous values indicating that this was a telemetry issue and not a power supply issue.
After resetting the telemetry circuits and associated boards the instrument began functioning again. On January 17, , the device was returned to normal operation and on the same day it completed its first science observations.
Hubble orbits the Earth in the extremely tenuous upper atmosphere , and over time its orbit decays due to drag. If not reboosted , it will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere within some decades, with the exact date depending on how active the Sun is and its impact on the upper atmosphere.
If Hubble were to descend in a completely uncontrolled re-entry, parts of the main mirror and its support structure would probably survive, leaving the potential for damage or even human fatalities.
NASA's original plan for safely de-orbiting Hubble was to retrieve it using a Space Shuttle. Hubble would then have most likely been displayed in the Smithsonian Institution.
This is no longer possible since the Space Shuttle fleet has been retired , and would have been unlikely in any case due to the cost of the mission and risk to the crew.
Instead, NASA considered adding an external propulsion module to allow controlled re-entry. The SCM, together with the Relative Navigation System RNS , mounted on the Shuttle to collect data to "enable NASA to pursue numerous options for the safe de-orbit of Hubble", constitute the Soft Capture and Rendezvous System SCRS.
As of [update] , the Trump Administration was considering a proposal by the Sierra Nevada Corporation to use a crewed version of its Dream Chaser spacecraft to service Hubble some time in the s both as a continuation of its scientific capabilities and as insurance against any malfunctions in the to-be-launched James Webb Space Telescope.
While robotic technology is not yet sophisticated enough, he said, with another manned visit "We could keep Hubble going for another few decades" with new gyros and instruments.
There is no direct replacement to Hubble as an ultraviolet and visible light space telescope, because near-term space telescopes do not duplicate Hubble's wavelength coverage near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths , instead concentrating on the further infrared bands.
These bands are preferred for studying high redshift and low-temperature objects, objects generally older and farther away in the universe. These wavelengths are also difficult or impossible to study from the ground, justifying the expense of a space-based telescope.
Large ground-based telescopes can image some of the same wavelengths as Hubble, sometimes challenge HST in terms of resolution by using adaptive optics AO , have much larger light-gathering power, and can be upgraded more easily, but cannot yet match Hubble's excellent resolution over a wide field of view with the very dark background of space.
Plans for a Hubble successor materialized as the Next Generation Space Telescope project, which culminated in plans for the James Webb Space Telescope JWST , the formal successor of Hubble.
It is not engineered to be fully serviceable such as replaceable instruments , but the design includes a docking ring to enable visits from other spacecraft.
A complementary telescope, looking at even longer wavelengths than Hubble or JWST, was the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory , launched on May 14, Like JWST, Herschel was not designed to be serviced after launch, and had a mirror substantially larger than Hubble's, but observed only in the far infrared and submillimeter.
It needed helium coolant, of which it ran out on April 29, Further concepts for advanced 21st-century space telescopes include the Large Ultraviolet Optical Infrared Surveyor LUVOIR ,  a conceptualized 8 to This effort is being planned for the — time frame.
Existing ground-based telescopes, and various proposed Extremely Large Telescopes , can exceed the HST in terms of sheer light-gathering power and diffraction limit due to larger mirrors, but other factors affect telescopes.
In some cases, they may be able to match or exceed Hubble in resolution by using adaptive optics AO. However, AO on large ground-based reflectors will not make Hubble and other space telescopes obsolete.
Furthermore, space telescopes can study the universe across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, most of which is blocked by Earth's atmosphere.
Finally, the background sky is darker in space than on the ground, because air absorbs solar energy during the day and then releases it at night, producing a faint—but nevertheless discernible— airglow that washes out low-contrast astronomical objects.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Space telescope. For other uses, see Hubble disambiguation. Seen in orbit from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis in , flying Servicing Mission 4 STS , the fifth and final Hubble mission.
Main articles: Wide Field and Planetary Camera , Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph , High Speed Photometer , Faint Object Camera , and Faint Object Spectrograph.
Main article: Space Telescope Science Institute. Hubble's low orbit means many targets are visible for slightly more than half of an orbit's elapsed time, since they are blocked from view by the Earth for almost one-half of each orbit.
Animation of Hubble's orbit from October 31, , to December 25, Earth is not shown. Main article: STS Play media.
Hubble Legacy Field second video. Further information: List of Hubble anniversary images. Further information: James Webb Space Telescope.
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